The world requirements of consumption of goods are realized through the control system of flow processes, where the implementation of material, human, partially energy flows is assigned to transport. The ideology of the future world as a sustainable development requires global harmonization of these processes with the purpose of minimization of expenses of energy, resources, ecological load on the environment.
An important role in this structure is assigned to logistics as a science of rational organization, management and technical and technological support of flow processes in the field of material production and handling in order to maximize the satisfaction of demand and minimize the total cost of each of the participants in the chain.
The place of origin of the term is Ancient Greece, where it meant the art of reasoning, later as expediency in public administration. In the 60s of the XX century logistics is the management of all activities that contribute to the movement and coordination of supply and demand for goods in a certain place and at a given time (Just in time – just in time). Later, with the expansion of small-scale production, there was a problem of minimizing stocks of components in warehouses, and this task began to solve warehouse logistics. The modern concept of logistics includes a comprehensive process of production planning from supply to sales, transport support in order to reduce costs and inventory levels of material resources, to fully meet the needs of customers with minimal costs for transport and warehouse operations. Deep integration of demand, production, circulation, transport requires quality management of flow processes on the basis of information at each stage of promotion of raw materials, components and goods.
Today, logistics is the science of rational organization, management and technical and technological support of flow processes in the field of material production and handling in order to maximize demand.
The objects of research and transformation in logistics are new material, energy, financial and information processes corresponding to them in the field of production and circulation.
The aim of research and transformation is to optimize flows by finding and mobilizing existing reserves and the position of the system.
The basic tool of logistic optimization is the theoretical apparatus of a number of Sciences – operations research, system analysis, systems theory.
Logistics operates with a number of terms:
- Logistic function – a set of activities and group of activities aimed at the conversion of a stream.
- Logically, an operation is a separate set of actions aimed at transforming logistics flows, in accordance with a specific task and the overall goal of their management.
- Logistics chain – linearly ordered number of elements of the logistics system.
- Logistics channel – a partially ordered number of entities that ensure the flow from the manufacturer to the consumer.
- Logistics network – a significant number of elements of the logistics system, interconnected material, service or passenger flows and their accompanying financial and information flows.
- Logistics management is planning, organization, control and information support. In transport management tasks is the choice of type and type of vehicle, determining the optimal route and load, coordination of transport and storage processes and the like.
The universal methodology of logistics is system-wide optimization of end-to-end streaming processes. In transport optimization criteria are the required number and range of transported cargo, the accuracy and minimum delivery time to the right place, the minimum cost of movement. As noted by the founders of modern logistics Bowersox D. D. and closs D., analysis and synthesis needs to be exposed to all components that constitute the logistics system, distribution logistics in procurement, production, transportation, information, etc is incorrect