This is a specialized part of the system of higher level which implements the processes of gathering, processing, storage, transmission of data to users created with the aim of ensuring the effectiveness of the implementation of the information functions in a given subject area, and which consists of the interacting functions of the following subsystems:
- technological – it language tools, it methodological support, technological environment: scenarios and diagrams, regulations;
- methods and modes of data processing, domain models;
- the material-technological – computer systems facilities (terminals, PC, network, computer systems), software systems for special and General purpose, hardware-software complexes etc.
- ergonomic – people (operators, programmers, users), psychophysiological user requirements, ergonomics process;
- organizational – forms and methods of organization of technological processes, functions of workplaces, structure of workplaces, regulation of access rights to databases and knowledge, characteristics of time cycles;
- information – databases and knowledge, initial input information, control data, models of information flows in a given subject area, data as intermediate results, etc.;
- economic – economic purposes of data processing, limitations, resources for implementation.
Thus, information technology systems are considered as a set of technological operations of data processing, organized in various technological processes to achieve local and global goals and focused on the effective functioning of the system for which are created and which includes information technology. The Central components here are:
- subject area;
- information-computing and software systems.
Information technology processes (ITP)
They are a set of technological operations and technological modules of data processing, structured according to the requirements of effective achievement of any one of the goals of it functioning, serving this subject area. ITP consists of subprocesses that are combined into structures of the required complexity. When classifying information technology processes it is necessary to take into account:
- o the General classification of ITP is only the basis for the TP structure and is specified in terms of objectives, available means, scope and other factors;
- o each of the goals of information technology corresponds to the technological process, and the generalized goals – the structure of this technological process;
- o the structure of the information technology process should be flexible and allow for modification;
- o classification of information technology process is determined by the subject area;
The main properties of the information technology process include:
- o decomposition into components;
- ability to create structures;
- fixation of implementation goals;
- the possibility of choice in the implementation of alternative components of information technology;
- partial ordering of the process components over time;
- distribution of operations in time and space.
In fact, the elementary component IS indivisible in the temporal and spatial sense, which predetermines a certain identified result of data processing (identification, knowledge).
One of the fundamental features of the information process is human participation. Since the concept of “Informatization” is defined in relation to the subject who perceives the information flow, that is, there is an adaptation of information technology to the user, and differentiation in relation to employees of various specialties and qualifications.
In information technology there are the following components:
- computing environment (hardware and software systems);
- Executive environment (regulated functions of information technology users);
- methodical environment (description of the technology of using it in different situations: methods, instructions, etc.).
The computing environment is operating, and information components. The operating room combines data processing and transfer operations. The information component includes the functions of data storage and related operations.